1157: Richard the Lionheart is born in Oxford.
1276: John XXI, the only Portuguese Pope, is elected.
1380: Moscow’s great monarch Dimitri defeats the Mongols and begins the fall of the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo.
1504: Michelangelo’s David statue is unveiled in Florence.
1514: The Polish-Lithuanian army defeats the Russians in the battle of Orsha.
1545: The Earl of Hertford leads a retaliation mission against Scotland.
1553: The city of Lichfield is founded.
1689: China and Russia sign the Nertsyinsk Treaty.
1727: A barn fire during a puppet show in the village of Burwell, Cambs kills 78 people, many of them children.
1761: George III. marries Charlotte von Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
1796: The French defeat Austria in the Battle of Bassano.
1831: William IV is crowned King of Great Britain.
1841: birth of the Czech composer Antonín Dvořák.
1855: French troops successfully attack the Malakoff Line during the Crimean War and British and French troops capture Sevastopol from the Russians, effectively ending the war.
1860: The excursion steamer “Lady Elgin” sinks after being rammed in a storm on Lake Michigan. 300 passengers drown.
1888: The first six Football League games of all time are played in England. On the same day, Annie Chapman becomes the second victim of Jack The Ripper in Whitechapel.
1899: The British government sends an additional 10,000 soldiers to Natal, South Africa.
1900: A hurricane and tidal wave hit Galveston, Texas, killing 6,000 people.
1914: Titanic’s sister ship HMS Oceanic sinks off Scotland. On the same day, Private Thomas Highgate became the first British soldier to be executed for desertion during the First World War. In 2006 he was pardoned posthumously.
1924: Alexandra Kollontai from Russia becomes the first female ambassador.
1926: The League of Nations Assembly votes unanimously for the admission of Germany.
1930: Richard Drew makes duct tape.
1941: The entire Jewish community of Meretsch, Lithuania, is exterminated.
1943: The surrender of Italy is announced by General Dwight D. Eisenhower.
1944: The first V2 rockets land on London and Antwerp.
1948: The British De Havilland DH108 fighter breaks the sound barrier.
1949: Death of the German composer Richard Strauss at the age of 89.
1950: 116 miners are trapped underground after a collapse at Knockshinnoch Castle in Scotland.
1952: Ernest Hemingway’s “The Old Man & The Sea” is published.
1957: Juan Manuel Fangio from Argentina confirms his record-breaking fifth Formula 1 driver’s title and comes second at the end of the season of the Italian Grand Prix in Monza. On the same day, Althea Gibson defeated Louise Brough Clapp 6-3, 6-2 and won the US Women’s National Championship.
1958: Bobby Moore makes his debut for West Ham United in a 3-2 First Division win over Manchester United at Upton Park.
1960: The American sprinter Wilma Rudolph wins her third gold medal at the Olympic Games in Rome as anchor of the US relay 4 x 100 m.
1963: Lotus driver Jim Clark wins the Italian Grand Prix in Monza and takes his first Formula 1 drivers’ championship.
1966: Singles charts:
- Yellow Submarine / Eleanor Rigby – The Beatles
- All or nothing – the little faces
- God only knows – The Beach Boys
- They come to take me away Ha Haa – Napoleon XIV
- Too early to know – Roy Orbison
- Distant Drums – Jim Reeves
- Lovers Of The World Unite – David and Jonathan
- Mama – Dave Berry
- With a girl like you – The Troggs
- Working in a Coal Mine – Lee Dorsey
1967: Uganda abolishes traditional tribal kingdoms and becomes a republic. On the same day, British Railways ceases steam traction in the northeast.
1968: Arthur Ashe wins the first US American single title of the Open era and beats the Dutchman Tom Okker with 14-12, 5-7, 6-3, 3-6, 6-3.
1970: Three planes are hijacked and blown up by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
1973: Margaret Court wins her 24th and final Grand Slam individual title and beats Australian Evonne Goolagong Cawley 7-6, 5-7, 6-2 at the US Open in Forest Hills.
1974: US President Gerald Ford pardons former President Richard Nixon of all federal crimes. On the same day, motorcycle daredevil Evil Knieval tries unsuccessfully to skip the Snake River Canyon in Idaho. He gets away with minor injuries.
1975: Guinee-Bissau declares independence from Portugal.
1977: Guitarist Jimmy McCullough and drummer Joe English leave Wings. On the same day, comedy actor Zero Mostel dies of an aortic aneurysm at the age of 62.
1981: Comedy series ‘Only Fools and Horses’ with David Jason and Nicholas Lyndhurst, debut on BBC1.
1986: Chilean President Augusto Pinochet escapes an assassination attempt on his life in a violent attack that kills five of his bodyguards.
1990: York City’s David Longhurst dies while playing in a fourth division game at Bootham Crescent against Lincoln City. The 25-year-old collapses just before half-time and is pronounced dead on arrival at the local hospital.
1991: Macedonia votes for independence from Yugoslavia.
1994: The last US, British and French troops leave West Berlin.
1998: The Republican dissident group The Real IRA declares its campaign of violence over.
1999: US Attorney General Janet Reno appoints former Senator John Danforth to head an independent investigation into the 1993 fire at Branch Davidian Church near Waco, Texas in response to the revelations in the film “Waco: The Rules of Engagement” .
2000: Hauliers, annoyed by the rising fuel prices, protest on the A1 in Tyne and Wear in a “go-slow” protest for 100 trucks.
2003: The German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl dies at the age of 101.
2009: Singer Peter Andre divorces glamor model Katie Price because of her unreasonable behavior.
2011: The fashion designer John Galliano is found guilty of anti-Semitic statements in a Paris court and sentenced to a fine of 6,000 euros.
2013: Album charts:
- The 1975 – The 1975
- Hesitation – nine inch nails
- Roaring 20s – Rizzle Kicks
- The impossible dream – Richard & Adam
- Halcyon Days – Ellie Goulding
- Hotel Cabana – Naughty Boy
- Sincerely, Ariana Grande
- Hail to the King – Avenged Sevenfold
- All The Little Lights – passenger
- Continuation of the prequel – Babyshambles
2014: Haider al-Abadi becomes Prime Minister of Iraq.
2015: Queen Elizabeth II becomes the longest serving monarch in British history. Wayne Rooney becomes England’s all-time top scorer with a penalty against Switzerland in a 2-0 win in the European Championship qualification at Wembley Stadium.
2016: Jamaican singer, songwriter and producer Prince Buster dies in Miami.
2017: Country singer-songwriter Don Williams dies of emphysema at the age of 78.
2019: Brazil’s Supreme Court rules a Marvel comic featuring two men kissing can be sold after the Mayor of Rio de Janeiro tried to ban it.
2020: Two former Myanmar soldiers testify that they were ordered to rape and kill Rohingya Muslim villagers.
BIRTHDAYS: Michael Frayn, playwright, 88; Bernie Sanders, US politician, 80; Dame Margaret Hodge, politician, 77; John McDonnell MP, Labor politician, 70; Anne Diamond, journalist, 67; Heather Thomas, actress, 64; Aimee Mann, singer-songwriter, 61; David Steele, bassist (The Beat / Fine Young Cannibals) 61; Louise Minchin, journalist, 53; Chris Powell, soccer manager, 52; Neko Case, singer-songwriter, 51; David Arquette, actor, 50; Martin Freeman, actor 50; Richard Hughes, drummer (Keane) 46; Pink (Alicia Moore), singer and songwriter, 42; Miles Jupp, comedian / actor, 42; João Moutinho, soccer player, 35; Wiz Khalifa (Cameron Jibril Thomaz), rapper, 34; Gylfi Sigurðsson, soccer player, 32; Jay Weinberg, drummer (Slipknot) 31; Joe Sugg, tv personality / vlogger, 30; Bruno Fernandes, soccer player, 27; Gaten Matarazzo, actor, 19th century.